When a poet, architect and an aesthete supervises the building of a city, beauty, balance and symmetry are to be expected. What leads romance to the city of Hyderabad, is the love story of a young prince and a village belle that resulted in its very foundations being laid. <>
There is a love story related to the founding of the city of Hyderabad. As a young prince, Muhammad Quli fell passionately in love with a maiden from Chichlam village across the river Musi. He would even venture to cross the river in spate to keep his tryst with his beloved. Ibrahim Qutb Shah, his father, built a bridge on the river so that the crown prince did not endanger his life. When he ascended the throne, Muhammad Quli built a grand structure, the Charminar, at the site of the village. The city was called Bhagnagar to appease his beloved, Bhagmati. Later on it was called Hyderabad. Bhagnagar means city of good fortune. Farkhunda Buniyad, the Persian chronogrammatic name of the city yields the same meaning.
There are several places to see and visit in and around the city of Hyderabad. The Charminar is the hub of the city, has four wide roads radiating in the four cardinal directions. The four minarets command the landscape for miles. The structure is square, each side measuring 100 feet, with a central pointed high arch at the center. The whole edifice contains numerous small decorative arches arranged both vertically and horizontally.
- Population : 3,058,093 (1991)
- Altitude : 537 metres above the sea level
- Languages : Telugu, Urdu and English
- Best time to visit : October to February
- STDCode: 040
Hyderabad was modeled after Isfaan in Iran and built under the supervision of the prime minister Mir Momin, a poet, architect and an aesthete-like his master. He tried to create a replica of Paradise itself to suit Muhammad Quli's status as the greatest of the Qutb Shahi rulers. The city was completed in 1592. It has a grid plan of two broad intersecting streets with the Charminar as a kind of triumphal arch at the center. The French traveler, Tavernier in 1652, compared Hyderabad to Orleans 'well built and opened out' and in 1672, Abbe Carr was much impressed by the city as the center of all trade in the East.
The Nizams Of Hyderabad
Aurangzeb died in 1707, seven years after the death of the last Qutb Shahi ruler, Abul Hasan Tana Shah in prison in 1700. The Mughal governor of Hyderabad, Mir Kamruddin Khan, titled Nizam-ul-Mulk, declared independence and started the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The waning Mughal power found itself helpless against forces of disintegration. But the Nizams were fabulously rich and stories of their hordes of gold, diamonds and pearls spread far and wide. Mir Osman Ali Khan, the last Nizam before Hyderabad merged into the Union of India, was among the world's wealthiest individuals. Prior to their treaty with the British, the Nizams had good relations with the French. Monsieur Raymond, a French adventurer and commander of the Nizam's troops, earned great respect of the people. A 23-feet-high granite obelisk inscribed JR stands on a hill in Saururnagar in memory of this trusted lieutenant of the Nizams, who couldn't stand the growth British influence.
Hyderabad is pleasant during the winters and hot during summer. Thus, the months from October to February form the best time to visit Hyderabad.
Places of Interest
There are several places to see and visit in and around the city of Hyderabad.
The Charminar - Charminar, the hub of the city, has four wide roads radiating in the four cardinal directions. The four minarets command the landscape for miles. The structure is square, each side measuring 100 feet, with a central pointed high arch at the center. The whole edifice contains numerous small decorative arches arranged both vertically and horizontally. The prominently projected cornice on the first floor upholds a series of six arches and capitals on each façade, rising to the double-story gallery of the minarets. The projected canopy, ornamental brackets and decoration in stucco plaster add graceful elegance to the structure. On the upper courtyard, a screen of arches topped by a row of square jall or water screens lends a fragile charm to the sturdy appearance of Charminar. This courtyard was used as a school and for prayers at the mosque. The minarets, their domed finials rising from their lotus-leaves cushion, rise to 180 feet from the ground. An interesting 17th-century description of the monument comes from Thevenot: "That which is called the four towers, is a square building, of which each face is ten fathom broad and about seven high. It is opened on the four sides by four arches…".
The Mecca Masjid - Near the Charminar stands the Mecca Masjid, begun by Muhammad Qutb Shah in 1617 and completed by Quranzeb in 1693. It is a grand edifice with a huge courtyard, which can accommodate nearly ten thousand men at prayer. Tavernier has provided a graphic description of the mammoth boulders cut to size and carted for use in the building of the mosque. The minarets look rather stunted in comparison with the grandeur of the whole massive structure. But it looks more Mughal then Qutb Shahi in its perfect granite finish and vast courtyard. A particular stone brick in the mihrab is believed to have been brought from Mecca.
Other Mosques - The other two mosques--the Jami Masjid and the Toli Masjid-are small and modest structures. Muhammad Quli Shah built the Jami Masjid in 1592, after founding Hyderabad. Musa Khan, a supervisor of works at the Mecca Masjid, levied a damri for every rupee spent on the building of the Mecca Masjid. With these collections he built the Toli Masjid, near the Purana Pul. Two buildings, the Badshahi Ashur Khana and Darul Shifa-built in 1594-are much dilapidated and in need of large scale repair.
Other Sites Of Interest in Hyderabad
The Nizams did not build any great mosques or palaces. The last Nizam built the Falakuma palace, which housed the most expensive art objects, tapestries and carpets, in addition to the largest single-man collection of diamonds. Here the Nizam had received their Majesties, the late King George V and King Edward VIII of England. The Chowmukha palace, built after the Shah palace of Teheran, is closed to visitors. The Regency Mansion, built in 1803 by James Kirkpatrick, married a Hyderabadi girl and built for her Rang Mahal, a suite of rooms in the native style.
Of much interest to visitors is the Husain Sagar Lake, a large artificial lake lying between Hyderabad and Secunderaad. It was built by Ibrahim Qutb Shah around 1550, in gratitude to Husain Shah Wali, who had cured him of a disease. A tourist spot affording lovely views of the city is the Naubat Pahad, a hilltop crowned by the Birla temple. In old days royal firmans (announcements) were read to the people to the beat of drums. The Bagh-I-Aam stretches below this hillock where stands the State Legislative Assembly building. Among the newer additions to Hyderabad's grand buildings are the Osmani University, the high court and the Osmania General Hospital.
The city straddles the Musi River, which, in 1908, had caused much destruction by flooding the city. Under the supervision of India's greatest engineer Sir M.Vishweshvarayya, two large reservoirs, Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were constructed to save the city from devastation by floods in the future. If there is some time left, a visit to the Nehru Zoological Park is recommended for a short lion safari and observing the wild beasts moving about freely in their expansive compounds. The crocodile hatchery is very informative for the young and the curious. One of the most visited places in the city is the Salar Jung museum.
Golconda has been known as famous center for diamonds, and the diamond mines boast of some of the most renowned diamonds in the world. The Kohinoor originally belonged to Golconda as did the Darya-I-Noor, the Orloff, the Pitt, and the great table of the Nizam.
Warangal is situated 157 km north-east of Hyderabad. It is famous for its thousand pillar temple-a specimen of the Chalukya architecture. The fort was built by the Kakatiyas, who ruled between 12th and 14th centuries. Ruins of the mud-brick fort survive in certain portions. Kakatiyas held Golconda prior to the advent of the Qutb Shahi's and their original mud fort atop the Golconda hill was replaced with stone fortifications. The great temple at Harnamkonda was built on the slopes of the hill in 1163 by Rudra Deva. It carries some exquisitely carved pillars. The monolithic Nandi sits on guard at the entrance which also has rock cut statues of elephants on either side. The Warangal fort was conquered by Muhammad Tughlaq in the 14th century suffering much destruction. The freestanding gateway in the Buddhist tornan style is the most magnificent structure of its kind.
110 km northwest of Hyderabad lies Bidar, former capital of the Bahamani, and later on Barid Shahi dynasty. Ultimately it was annexed by Aurangzeb and subsequently the Nizams took over Bidar. It has a vast range of palaces mosques baths, schools and tombs within a strong fortified area. The tombs at Ashtur and Gawan's Madarsa have strong architectural splendor. If one has some time to spare he/she shouldn't miss nearby Gulbarga, the Bhamani capital, famous for its beautiful mosques and fort.
Nagarjunakonda, lying southeast of Hyderabad, has had been under strong Buddhist influence. The Satvahanas built a grand stupa at Amravati, embellished with most sumptuous sculptures. Later on, the Ikshvakus dominated the region around ad 235 their capital was Vijaipuri, a university town. With the decline of lkshvakus, Vijaipuri fell into neglect. The Reddy kings in the 14th century fortified the commanding hill of Nagarjunakonda, perpetuating the memory and teachings of Buddhist teacher Nagarjuna. Before work on the Nagarjunasagar Dam project began, archaeologists performed the miraculous task of transporting stone the excavated ruins of Vijaipuri to the top of Nagajunakonda hill and setting them up in their exact position. Remains of sculpture, monasteries, amphitheatre, and streets found a new safer home permanently relieved of the fear of inundation. A huge statue of Buddha dominates the crest of Nagarjunakonda. It is the old forgotten Vijaipuri of the lkshvakus, which has been resurrected on the hill.
Events And Festivals
Ganesh Chaturthi (late August-early September), is an important festival of Hyderabad.
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